Orbitals are the regions of space in which electrons are most likely to be found.
Each orbital is denoted by a number and a letter.
The number denotes the energy level of the electron in the orbital. Thus 1 refers to the energy level closest to the nucleus; 2 refers to the next energy level further out, and so on.
The letter refers to the shape of the orbital. The letters go in the order s, p, d, f, g, h, i, j, etc. The letters s, p, d, and f were assigned for historical reasons that need not concern us. All we have to do is remember the shapes that correspond to each letter.
Since an electron can theoretically occupy all space, it is impossible to draw an orbital. All we can do is draw a shape that will include the electron most of the time, say 95% of the time. We call this shape the 95% contour.
An s orbital is spherically symmetric around the nucleus of the atom, like a hollow ball made of rather fluffy material with the nucleus at its centre. As the energy levels increase, the electrons are located further from the nucleus, so the orbitals get bigger. The order of size is 1s < 2s < 3s <
Orbital models were designed to demonstrate the angular distribution of the “s”, “p”, “d” and “f” orbitals and to show how these models may be used to illustrate a number of aspects of molecular orbital and crystal field theories. It is hoped that three dimensional models will help students to understand ideas that many of them find difficult to visualize from two-dimensional drawings in textbooks.
This model is hand made in the USA by Klinger Educational Products. This is a permanent structure. We only use grade A materials